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Systematic Reviews: Assessment Tools and Critical Appraisal

Resources for Appraising Research

How to Critially Appraise An Article

Ten questions to ask when critically appraise an article:

1. Is the study question relevant?

2. Does the study add anything new?

3. What type of research question is being asked?

4. Was the study design appropriate for the research question?

5. Did the study methods address the most important potential sources of bias?

6. Was the study performed according to the original protocol?

7. Does the study test a stated hypothesis?

8. Were the statistical analyses performed correctly?

9. Do the data justify the conclusions?

10. Are there any conflicts of interest?



  • Taylor, P., Hussain, J. A., & Gadoud, A. (2013). How to appraise a systematic review. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 74(6), 331-334. doi:10.12968/hmed.2013.74.6.331
  • Young, J. M., & Solomon, M. J. (2009). How to critically appraise an article. Nature Clinical Practice Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 6(2), 82-91. doi:10.1038/ncpgasthep1331