Skip to Main Content

Referencing and Citation Styles: Chicago 17th A

Official Chicago 17th A referencing manual

The official published manual for Chicago 17th A is:

Chicago 17th A Style

Some important changes include (2017):

  • The use of ibid. for subsequent citations is now discouraged in favor of shortened citations. (14.29)
  • Expanded information on personal communications, including texts and posts through social media (14.214)
  • Expanded information on the elements of multimedia citations (14.261)
  • New information on permalinks (14.9)
  • New information on the use of short URLs (14.10)
  • Citing locations in electronic formats without fixed pages (14.160)

References in the body of your essay

Chicago 17th A (the Notes system) uses a footnotes and bibliography format of referencing. Footnotes require you to mark the in-text citation with a superscript number and provide a reference citation within the footnote. Throughout the document these are numbered in sequential order. Subsequent occurrences of the same citation will have an abbreviated form as indicated below. You are then required to provide the full list of references cited in your document as the bibliography. Please note that the first line of all footnote citations are indented.

Example of a footnote

  • ...if film tried to show the complexity of Austen's narrative voice, the final product would be almost impossible to follow.1

Footnote (at the bottom of the page)

  •   1.   Olivia Murphy, "Books, Bras and Bridget Jones: Reading Adaptions of Pride and Prejudice," Sydney Studies in English 31(2005): 29.


Footnote examples

Each example illustrates the footnote entry and subsequent appearances of the same reference.

  •   1.   Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.

Subsequent footnotes can use a shortened version of the citation

  •   1.   Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.
  •   2.  Ward and Burns, War, 61–64.
Book Chapter

  1.   John D. Kelly, “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War,” in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, ed. John D. Kelly et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 77.

  3.  Kelly, “Seeing Red,” 81–82.

Journal article

  1.  Russell Winslow, “On Mimetic Style in Plato’s Republic,” Philosophy & Rhetoric 45, no. 1 (2012): 54.

  3.  Winslow, “Plato’s Republic,” 52–53.

Newspaper article

       1.  Daniel Mendelsohn, “But Enough about Me,” New Yorker, January 25, 2010, 68.

  3.  Mendelsohn, “But Enough about Me,” 69.


  1.   "Abdul Abdullah,” Museum of Contemporary Art, accessed September 14, 2017,

  2. “Abdul Abdullah,” MCA.


Your bibliography should be ordered alphabetically by author family name. When you have multiple bibliographic entries from the same author, arrange by title, see section 14.71 of the style manual. The Chicago 17th A style requires references to have a hanging indent as illustrated below in the examples. For more examples please consult the complete style manual for the Notes system.

  • Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Edited with an introduction and notes by Vivien Jones. London: Penguin, 1996.
Book chapter
  • Lau, Beth. “Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice.” In A Companion to Romanticism, edited by Duncan Wu, 219-226. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.
Journal article
  • Walton, Inga. “Novel Dressing.” Textile Fibre Forum 28, no. 4 (2009): 12-14.
  • Frost, Andrew. “William Kentridge: The Refusal of Time – interview.” The Guardian. Last modified February 21, 2014.
Exhibition catalogue
  • Dali, Salvador.  Salvador Dali: Liquid Desire. Curated by Ted Gott. Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 2009. Exhibition catalog.

More Resources

Referencing Images

Images are not usually represented in a bibliography, but rather an image list as part of the front matter or directly by the image in the text.  

Caption for a Work of Art

Figure 1. Max Dupain, Sunbaker, 1937.  Gelatin silver photograph, 38.6 x 43.4cm. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

Caption for an image, reproduced from the Internet

Vincent Namatjira, Self-portrait on Friday, 2017. Acrylic on linen, 152 x 122 cm.


For further examples please see the SCA Chicago Referencing Guide above.

Architecture, Design & Planning (ADP) Students

You will find detailed videos on how to use and properly acknowledge images, as well as coding & 3D models in your Academic Skills Portal

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are advised that this website may contain images, voices and names of people who have died.

The University of Sydney Library acknowledges that its facilities sit on the ancestral lands of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, who have for thousands of generations exchanged knowledge for the benefit of all. Learn more