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Referencing and Citation Styles: Harvard

Harvard Referencing System

The following explains the Harvard referencing system. It is important to note that there are many interpretations of it, especially in reference management systems such as EndNote.   

Referencing in the body of your essay

The Harvard system is another name given to the Author-Date style of referencing and citation. 

Referencing an idea

  • The leading medical cause of Aboriginal mortality is due to circulatory system disease. Other important causes of death include diseases of the respiratory system and injury or poisoning (Anderson 1999, p. 60; Saggers & Gray 1999, p. 100; Thomson 1995, p. 171).


  • Anderson (1999, p. 60), Thomson (1995, p. 171) and Saggers and Gray (1999, p. 100) all state that the leading cause of Aboriginal mortality is due to circulatory system disease, and that other important causes of death include diseases of the respiratory system and injury or poisoning.

Referencing a quotation

  • Indeed, one researcher commented that 'technological innovations have saved or extended the lives of many patients' (Lumby 2001, p. 44).

Citing a source within a source

Where your source quotes or refers to another source, for example Unsworth refers to previous work by Halliday on linguistics, the citation might read thus:

  • (Halliday 1987, cited in Unsworth 2004, p. 15)

Only Unsworth will appear in the Reference list at the end of your assignment

Reference List

Your reference list should be ordered alphabetically by author and then chronologically by year of publication. For instances of multiple articles with the same authors and years of publication, please see the complete guide.

  • Cochrane, A 2007, Understanding urban policy: a critical approach, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA.
Book chapter
  • Richards, KC 1997, ‘Views on globalization’, in HL Vivaldi (ed.), Australia in a global world, Century, North Ryde, NSW.
Journal article
  • Elo, A, Ervasti, J, Kuosma, E, & Mattila, P 2008, ‘Evaluation of an organizational stress management program in a municipal public works organization’, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 10-23.
Webpage with an author
Webpage with no author
Newspaper article
  • Bagnall, D 1998, 'Private schools: why they are out in front', The Bulletin, January 27, pp. 12-15.
Government publication
  • Department of Finance and Administration 2006, Delivering Australian Government services: managing multiple channels, DOFA, Canberra.

Quick Links

The Harvard style as used in Australia is based on the following text:

Additional Resources

Harvard Style and EndNote

The Harvard output style in EndNote may not suit departmental requirements. Choose Harvard_UQ for an output style that is based on the Style manual for authors, editors and printers (2002), which is also the source for the Harvard system.