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Engineering: Referencing in Engineering

 

In Engineering, a range of referencing styles are used and which one you need to use will often depend on the preference of the school or particular unit of study coordinator. Students should check with their lecturer or course coordinator if there is any doubt as to which style should be followed. Some basic information is presented below about the most commonly used styles in Engineering: Harvard, Royal Society of Chemistry, IEEE and APA, with links to the full information you would need to refer to in order to fulfill the requirements of referencing according to that style's guidelines. The relevant style guide will cover the various types of texts you might want to reference from journal articles to technical or government reports.

 

The Harvard referencing style does not have an overseeing body like the APA style does, so it's important to understand the basic conventions and be consistent in how you apply them, using available resources to guide you.  The University of Sydney Harvard referencing style guide is available as a pdf from the Library's Harvard referencing subject guide. This guide is based on the following text:

Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th edn, rev. Snooks & Co., Wiley, Milton, Qld.

Harvard is an Author-Date style, named because whenever you cite a work within the body of your text, you would include the author's surname and year that work was published, as per the image below.

In-text citation with author surnames followed by the year of publishing in brackets at the end of a sentence that refers to supporting evidence.

The full details of the reference is included in a reference list at the end of the document, ordered alphabetically by author surname.

Convention of a journal article with DOI in the Harvard style.

Endnote style

The default Harvard style in Endnote is problematic in that it capitalises surnames.  Instead, we suggest you use the Harvard_UQ style.  This style is available from the select another style menu when you download Endnote from the University. It may also be downloaded from our Endnote Guide

For an interactive guide to this style have a look at the tool produced by the University of Melbourne Library

 

The Royal Society of Chemistry style is commonly used in the School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering.  It is a numbering style, which means you place a superscript number within the body of the text and the full reference is included in a list at the end of your text, ordered by the number in which it appears.

Refer to the support material provided by the Royal Society of Chemistry to guide your use of this referencing style.

Endnote style

The Royal Society of Chemistry Endnote style must be downloaded and installed manually. Download the style from Endnote's website.  Then place that style within the styles folder, which can be found wherever you have Endnote installed.  You will then be able to select the style from the select another style dialogue within Endnote and Microsoft Word.  Instructions for this process can also be found on the Endnote website.

 

The IEEE style is commonly used in the School of Electrical and Information Engineering and (though not exclusively) the School of Computer Science.  It is a numbering style, which means you place a number within the body of the text and the full reference is included in a list at the end of your text, ordered by the number in which it appears.  The IEEE style uses numbers within square brackets e.g. [1] or [2]-[5].

The IEEE Style Manual and Reference Guide can be found on the IEEE website.  The IEEE Computer Society Style Guide, which varies from the IEEE guide may be found on their website.  Other IEEE publications may also vary from the central guide.

Endnote style

No single Endnote style will match the applicable reference guide perfectly (although the provided styles are as problematic as the default Harvard style).  For instance, Endnote cannot format consecutive citations as [2]-[5], but will instead format them as [2-5].  In this case, my advice to a student doing an assignment would be to leave the Endnote formatting, and simply apply the rule of consistency.  Likewise, there may be some small inconsistencies, depending on certain reference types, between the Endnote Style and the style guide. You can, however convert your document to plain text just before submission and make these changes manually, if you wish.  For more confident users, you may wish to edit the style within Endnote to correct the variations.  Refer to Endnote's Style Editing Guide.

 

Note: The APA 7th style manual was released on 1 October, 2019.  It will take some time for supporting resources to be updated, including the Endnote style.

APA is an author-date style, named because whenever you cite a work within the body of your text, you would include the author's surname and year that work was published.  The full details of the reference is included in a reference list at the end of the document, ordered alphabetically by author surname.

Refer to the Library's subject guide for a large set of resources produced by the American Psychological Association, who maintain the style, as well as a Library-produced guide.

Endnote style

Currently, the APA 6th style that comes with your Endnote install should be used in conjunction with the style manual.

 

Information about other referencing styles can be found through the Library's Referencing Subject Guide