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Referencing and Citation Styles: IEEE

References in the body of your essay

The IEEE referencing style uses a numbered system. All in-text citations recieve a number, starting from [1]. When repeating a citation, use the original citation number allocated to that reference.

Referencing an idea

  • Whilst implementation of NAT on a network provides security from hack attacks or snooping, it makes protection of the datagram via IPSEC difficult [1]. Several methods for allowing IPSEC thorugh a NAT have been implemented [2-5].
  • Slower speeds where noticed when packet switching was performed by software, rather than hardware, configurations [4,9-10].

When talking about an author or study, subtitute their details with the bracketed citation e.g.;

  • According to [4], IPv6 provides some benefits for the security-minded network administrator.

Referencing a quotation

  • "Who the hell knew how much address space we needed [12]?"

Reference List

The references in your list should be arranged in the order they appear in your assignment.

  • [1] W.K. Chen. Linear Networks and Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123-35.
Book Chapter
  • [2] J.E. Bourne. "Synthetic structure of industrial plastics," in Plastics, 2nd ed., vol. 3. J. Peters. Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15-67.
Conference proceedings
  • [3]   D.B. Payne and H.G. Gunhold. “Digital sundials and broadband technology,” in Proc. IOOC-ECOC, 1986, pp. 557-998.
Journal article
  • [4]   D. Kornack and P. Rakic, “Cell Proliferation without Neurogenesis in Adult Primate Neocortex,”Science, vol. 294, Dec. 2001, pp. 2127-2130, doi:10.1126/science.1065467.
  • [5]   J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices,” U.S. Patent 3 624 125, July 16, 1990.
  • [6]   IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969.
Web Page or Web Document
  • [7]   European Telecommunications Standards Institute, “Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Implementation guidelines for DVB terrestrial services; transmission aspects,” European Telecommunications Standards Institute, ETSI TR-101-190, 1997. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Aug. 17, 1998]