Skip to main content

Referencing and Citation Styles: Chicago 16th A

Chicago 16th A has now been superceded by the 17th Edition.

References in the body of your essay

Chicago 16th A uses a footnotes and bibliography format of referencing. Footnotes require you to mark the in-text citation with a superscript number and provide a reference citation within the footnote. Throughout the document these are numbered in sequential order. Subsequent occurrences of the same citation will have an abbreviated form as indicated below. You are then required to provide the full list of references cited in your document as the bibliography. Please note that the first line of all footnote citations are indented.

Example of a footnote

  • ...if film tried to show the complexity of Austen's narrative voice, the final product would be almost impossible to follow.1

Footnote (at the bottom of the page)

  •   1.   Olivia Murphy, "Books, Bras and Bridget Jones: Reading Adaptions of Pride and Prejudice," Sydney Studies in English 31(2005): 29.


Footnote examples

Each example illustrates the footnote entry and subsequent appearances of the same reference.

  •   1.   Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.

If the next footnote is the same as the preceding, can use ibid.

  •   1.   Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.
  •   2.  Ibid., 59–61.

Subsequent footnotes can use shortened citation

  •   1.   Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.
  •   4.  Ward and Burns, War, 61–64.
Book Chapter

  1.   John D. Kelly, “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War,” in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, ed. John D. Kelly et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 77.

  3.  Kelly, “Seeing Red,” 81–82.

Journal article

  1.  Joshua I. Weinstein, “The Market in Plato’s Republic,” Classical Philology 104 (2009): 440.

  3.  Weinstein, “Plato’s Republic,” 452–53.

Newspaper article

   1.  Daniel Mendelsohn, “But Enough about Me,” New Yorker, January 25, 2010, 68.

  3.  Mendelsohn, “But Enough about Me,” 69.


  1.   Andrew Frost, “William Kentridge: The Refusal of Time – interview,” The Guardian, last modified February 21, 2014,

  3.  Andrew Frost, “William Kentridge.”


Your bibliography should be ordered alphabetically by author and then chronologically by year of publication. The Chicago 16th A style requires the references to have a hanging indent as illustrated below in the examples. For more examples please consult the complete guide. For instances of multiple articles with the same authors and years of publication, please see the complete guide.

  • Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Edited with an introduction and notes by Vivien Jones. London: Penguin, 1996.
Book chapter
  • Lau, Beth. “Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice.” In A Companion to Romanticism, edited by Duncan Wu, 219-226. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.
Journal article
  • Walton, Inga. “Novel Dressing.” Textile Fibre Forum 28, no. 4 (2009): 12-14.
  • Frost, Andrew. “William Kentridge: The Refusal of Time – interview.” The Guardian. Last modified February 21, 2014.
Exhibition catalogue
  • Dali, Salvador.  Salvador Dali: Liquid Desire. Curated by Ted Gott. Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 2009. Exhibition catalog.

Referencing Images

Images are not usually represented in a bibliography, but rather an image list as part of the front matter.

Caption for a Work of Art

Figure 1. Max Dupain, Sunbaker, 1937.  Gelatin silver photograph, 38.6 x 43.4cm. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

Caption for an image, reproduced from the Internet

Vincent Namatjira, Self-portrait on Friday, 2017. Acrylic on linen, 152 x 122 cm.

For further examples please see the SCA Chicago Referencing Guide above.