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Referencing and Citation Styles: APA 6th

References in the body of your essay

The APA in text reference is in the format (author, date). When directly quoting from a text you must include a page number in the citation as given in the examples below. Including page numbers in all other circumstances is not required however, it is best practice to do so when referring to part of a work (e.g. a paragraph or chapter in a book). When referring to an entire work that covers a single topic (e.g. a journal article) it is not required.

Referencing an idea
  • The leading medical cause of Aboriginal mortality is due to circulatory system disease. Other important causes of death include diseases of the respiratory system and injury or poisoning (Anderson, 1999; Saggers & Gray, 1999; Thomson, 1995).

OR

  • Anderson (1999), Thomson (1995), and Saggers and Gray (1999) all state that the leading cause of Aboriginal mortality is due to circulatory system disease, and that other important causes of death include diseases of the respiratory system and injury or poisoning.
Referencing a quotation
  • Indeed, one researcher commented that “technological innovations have saved or extended the lives of many patients” (Lumby, 2001, p. 44).
Citing a source within a source

Where your source quotes or refers to another source, for example Unsworth refers to previous work by Halliday on linguistics, the citation might read thus:

  • (Halliday, 1987, cited in Unsworth, 2004, p. 15)

Only Unsworth will appear in the Reference list at the end of your assignment

Reference list

Your reference list should be ordered alphabetically by author and then chronologically by year of publication. The APA 6th style requires the references to be indented as illustrated below in the examples.

For instances of multiple articles with the same authors and years of publication, please see the complete guide. If you have the DOI for the journal article, you should include it in the reference, otherwise, it is not necessary.

Book
  • Lumby, J. (2001). Who cares? The changing health care system. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Book chapter
  • McKenzie, H., Boughton, M., Hayes, L., & Forsyth, S. (2008). Explaining the complexities and value of nursing practice and knowledge. In I. Morley & M. Crouch (Eds.), Knowledge as value: Illumination through critical prisms (pp. 209-224). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi.
Journal article
  • Boughton, M., & Halliday, L. (2008). A challenge to the menopause stereotype: Young Australian women's reflections of 'being diagnosed' as menopausal. Health & Social Care in the Community, 16(6), 565-572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.2008.00777
Webpage with an author
  • Welch, N. (2000, February 21). Toward an understanding of the determinants of rural health. Retrieved from http://www.ruralhealth.org.au/welch.htm
Webpage with no author
  • ANCI national competency standards for the registered nurse and the enrolled nurse. (2000).  Retrieved from http://www.anci.org.au/competencystandards.htm
Newspaper article
  • Bagnall, D. (1998, January 27). Private schools: Why they are out in front. The Bulletin, pp. 12-15.
Government publication
  • The Health Targets and Implementation (Health for All) Committee. (1988). Health for all Australians.  Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Company and Industry Reports
  • Magner, L. (2016). IBISWorld industry report OD5381. Coffee shops in Australia. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.

Quick Links

The attached PDF provide a complete overview of the APA 6th referencing style. 

APA 6th Guide

Additional resources