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Referencing and Citation Styles: APA 6th

References in the body of your essay

The APA in text reference is in the format (author, date). When directly quoting from a text you must include a page number in the citation as given in the examples below. Including page numbers in all other circumstances is not required however, it is best practice to do so when referring to part of a work (e.g. a paragraph or chapter in a book). When referring to an entire work that covers a single topic (e.g. a journal article) it is not required.

Referencing an idea
  • The leading medical cause of Aboriginal mortality is due to circulatory system disease. Other important causes of death include diseases of the respiratory system and injury or poisoning (Anderson, 1999; Saggers & Gray, 1999; Thomson, 1995).

OR

  • Anderson (1999), Thomson (1995), and Saggers and Gray (1999) all state that the leading cause of Aboriginal mortality is due to circulatory system disease, and that other important causes of death include diseases of the respiratory system and injury or poisoning.
Referencing a quotation
  • Indeed, one researcher commented that “technological innovations have saved or extended the lives of many patients” (Lumby, 2001, p. 44).
Citing a source within a source

Where your source quotes or refers to another source, for example Unsworth refers to previous work by Halliday on linguistics, the citation might read thus:

  • (Halliday, as cited in Unsworth, 2004, p. 15)

Only Unsworth will appear in the Reference list at the end of your assignment

Reference List

Your reference list should be ordered alphabetically by author and then chronologically by year of publication. The APA 6th style requires the references to be indented as illustrated below in the examples.

For instances of multiple articles with the same authors and years of publication, please see the complete guide. If you have the DOI for the journal article, you should include it in the reference, otherwise, it is not necessary.

Book
  • De Vaus, D. A. (2014). Surveys in social research. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Book chapter
  • McKenzie, H., Boughton, M., Hayes, L., & Forsyth, S. (2008). Explaining the complexities and value of nursing practice and knowledge. In I. Morley & M. Crouch (Eds.), Knowledge as value: Illumination through critical prisms (pp. 209-224). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi.
Journal article
  • Boughton, M., & Halliday, L. (2008). A challenge to the menopause stereotype: Young Australian women's reflections of 'being diagnosed' as menopausal. Health & Social Care in the Community, 16(6), 565-572. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2524.2008.00777.x
Webpage with an author
  • Welch, N. (2000, February 21). Toward an understanding of the determinants of rural health. Retrieved from http://www.ruralhealth.org.au/welch.htm
Webpage with no author
  • ANCI national competency standards for the registered nurse and the enrolled nurse. (2000).  Retrieved from http://www.anci.org.au/competencystandards.htm
Newspaper article
  • Bagnall, D. (1998, January 27). Private schools: Why they are out in front. The Bulletin, pp. 12-15.
Government publication
  • The Health Targets and Implementation (Health for All) Committee. (1988). Health for all Australians.  Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Company and Industry Reports
  • Magner, L. (2016). IBISWorld Industry Report OD5381. Coffee Shops in Australia. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.

APA 6th Tool

Academic Writer is APA's tool fully integrated with Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).

  • Learn - see quick guides and video tutorials which help you master academic writing in APA Style. 
  • Learn -- Sample References - find examples of references such as, books, book chapters, journal articles, technical or research reports, conference proceedings, audiovisual materials, web resources, etc. 

Note:

  • Remove library ezproxy link from the URL of the reference eg. ezproxy1.library.usyd.edu.au
  • Academic Writer is optimised for Chrome, Firefox and Safari. Internet Explorer is not recommended.

FAQs

How to cite secondary source?

How to cite references in text such as one work by 3 authors or more?

How to reference different authors with the same surname?

How to reference multiple authors and group authors (e.g. NHMRC)?

Additional Resources

APA Style blog

The APA Style Blog is the official companion to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition. It explores what APA Style is and how it works in a variety of areas, including reference citations of every sort, grammar and usage, the publication process, and social media.

Quick Links

This guide provides an overview of the APA 6th referencing style. 

APA 6th Guide